Romans were the believer of plurality of Gods. Religion linked their social and cultural life. Their belief in plurality was evident from the existence of family gods, the household gods (gods of meals) and Manes (souls of ancestors). After Greece took over, the Romans assimilated the Greek gods and gave them Latin names. Traditional religion became an important part of political and civic rites of the empire.
The cult of the gods and the Emperor was done through prayers and sacrifices that took place in temples and altars. Public games in Rome were dedicated to Jupiter. The priests (augurs and pontiffs) and priestesses (Vestal) were the organizers of the gods. The main gods were Jupiter, who was the father of the gods, Juno (his wife), Mars, Venus, Diana and Bacchus. We will further see the list of Roman Gods and goddess that were existed in Rome.
1 Apollo (Apollo-oni)
Common in the Greek and Roman mythology, Apollo was the god of Sun, thought and meditation. Mythology awarded her amorous adventures in very amazing ways. He was especially revered in Delphi, where oracle Of Delphi (Pythia) held the court that was dedicated to Apollo.
2 Bacchus (Bacchus-i)
Bacchus, son of Jupiter and Semele, was the god of wine and agriculture. Juno had tricked Semele into asking to see Jupiter as he really was. Since, Semele was a human/mortal and she was burned up by Jupiter’s divine sight. This followed by Jupiter sewing Bacchus in his thigh and giving birth nine months later. Bacchus was tutored by Silenus, a great lover of wine. Bacchus wandered through different countries as far as India, to teach people the skill of growing vine.
3 Ceres (Ceres, Eris)
Ceres was the Roman goddess of agriculture, fertility and motherly relationships. It was the equivalent of the Greek goddess Demeter.
4 Cupido (Cupid-inis)
Cupid was the Roman god of love, erotic desire, affection and attraction. Considered the son of Mars and Venus, he was the equivalent of the Greek god Eros.
5 Diana (Diana-ae)
Diana is the Roman goddess of hunt, moon and birthing and was associated with wild animals and woodland. She was equated to Greek god Artemis. The identification with Artemis was given early enough, around the sixth century BC. The shrines of Capua, which had the name of Diana Tifatina, and Aricia, near Rome on the river banks where Nemi was called Diana Nemorensis (Diana of the woods) are the oldest sanctuaries. The goddess found pleasure in human sacrifices.
6 Faun (Faunus-i)
Faunus was a Roman pastoral god, horned as the god of forests, plains and fields. He watched over the fertility of the fields and the fertility of livestock. In honor of Fauno (Pan to the Greeks) the Romans celebrate Lupercalia.
7 Flora (Flora-ae)
Flora was a goddess of flowers- a symbol of nature and flowers. Flora was introduced in Rome by Titus Tatius. She is considered a minor figure in Roman mythology, but her association with spring gives her a particular importance at the spring-coming.
8 Fortuna (Fortuna, e)
Fortuna was the goddess of fortune, fate and luck. She could bring happiness and misery. She was respected in the Roman classical era. She was represented with the horn of plenty, either sitting or standing, always blind. The goddess Fortuna was invoked under many different names: Redux (to ask for the return of a trip), Publica, Huiusce Diei (the private fortune the next day), etc. Her Greek equivalent was Tyche.
9 Jano (Iano-i)
Jano was one of the oldest gods of Rome. He had two faces, symbolizing the knowledge of the past and the future. He was the protector of all concrete and abstract subjects: door (Janue) houses, the start of the day, the month, the year etc and hence the first month is called Janeiro (Januarius).
10 Juno (Iuno-oni)
Juno was the goddess of woman, marriage and childbirth. The Roman goddess was linked to the Greek god Hera. She was the daughter of Saturn and Rhea, and sister to Jupiter. Juno represents woman and their features, such as marriage, pregnancy and childbirth. Juno bears all the characteristics of Juno Caprotina (goddess of fertility), Juno Pronúbia (goddess of marriage) and Juno Moneta (good advisor). Juno had the sovereign function to represent women in the Roman people.
11 Jupiter (lupiter-Iouis)
Jupiter, also known as Jove was the father of the gods. He is the god of sky and thunder. He was also the chief deity of Roman state religion Roman state religion. He originated as a sky god and was regarded equivalent to Greek Zeus.
12 Mars (Mars-tis)
In Roman mythology, Mars was the god of war and also an agricultural guardian. He was equivalent to the Greek god Ares. He was revered as the god of spring, hence the name of March, and the protector of nature, agriculture, as well as war. He was also the eternal lover of Venus.
13 Mercury (Mercurius-i)
Mercury was the god of shopkeepers, merchants, trade and profit. He was equivalent to the Greek Hermes. Born in Cilene, he was the son of Jupiter and Maiat.
14 Minerva (Minerua-ae)
Minerva was the Roman goddess of arts, crafts, finance, communication, luck, trickery and thieves. She is identified with Greek Athena. She was the protector of Rome, and especially the champion of artisans and manual labor and sometimes also the doctors. She also became a symbol of knowledge and wisdom, because it is identified with the Greek Athena. They were consecrated, like Athena, the male, the owl and the olive tree is also presented with helmet and armor. This goddess does not belong to the most ancient deities of the Latin pantheon.
15 Neptune (Neptunus-i)
Neptune was god of the sea. Equivalent to Greek Poseidon, he was the Roman god of the waters and seas. He was the son of Saturn (Time) and Rhea, brother of Jupiter and Pluto. He also inhabits a palace on the seabed. His wife Salacia, assimilated Amphitrite and Thetis Greek. They represent on the old ones with a trident in hand, and on a chariot pulled by seashores.
16 Nymphs (nympha-ae)
Nymphs are the gods of nature. The nymphs personify the forces of nature, mountains, plains, trees, fountains and rivers. According to the places they inhabited had their own names: the waters prevailed the Naiades, the Nereids and Oceanides; in the mountains and caves the Oréadas, etc. represented as scantily clad maidens, and their worship was the most widespread among the Greeks and Romans.
17 Palas (Pallas-Addis)
Palas was born from the head of Jupiter and was armed head to toe. She is a warrior goddess, represented by an owl and an olive tree.
18 Pandora (Pandora-ae)
She was created by Hephaestus and Athena, on Zeus’ order. The aim was to create the most perfect human being on Earth. Epimetheus, seduced by Pandora, asks her to marry him. Although he had been advised to refuse any gift from the gods, he accepts it. In the house where she was living, there was a closed jar which was forbidden to touch. Pandora could not resist and opened the jar and from there went all human ills and spread throughout the earth. When she closed the jar, only hope was there. In addition to this version, there is still another which tells us that in the jar were closed all humans, and when opened, they were lost. So Pandora was held responsible for all misfortunes.
19 Fates (Fates-ae)
The parkas were deities who represented the power of fate in the Roman religion. They were called by antiphrasis “those who save”, precisely because they did not spare anyone. They had the same characteristics as the blind Fates. They are distinguished as the three spinner sisters who weave the lives of men without mercy. The first is the birth, the second is marriage and the third death. Forum and tour guides the three statues, called “Tria Fata,” “The Three Fates” or “three fairies”.
20 Pluto (Pluto-oni)
Pluto was the God of the underworld. In Greek mythology he was equivalent to Hades, the King of hell and god of the dead.
21 Pomona (Pomona-ae)
Pomona was the Goddess of orchards and fruit. It is said that she was a wood nymph. Unlike other Roman gods and goddesses, she has no Greek equivalent.
22 Proserpina (Proserpine-ae)
Proserpine is the Roman goddess of the underworld, springtime, flowers and vegetation. Persephone is her Greek equivalent. Her story is the basis of a myth of springtime.
23 Psyche (Psyche-es)
Psyche symbolizes the destiny of the human soul, torn between earthly love and divine love.
24 Venus (Venus-eris)
Venus was the goddess of love, sex, desire, seduction, beauty and fertility. She was identified with the Greek Aphrodite. It is believed that she was the mother of Romans through her son Aeneas, who survived the fall of Troy and fled to Italy.
25 Vesta (Vesta-ae)
Vesta was the Roman goddess of hearth, home and family. Her presence was symbolized by sacred fire, identified with the Hestia of the Greeks. Her prominence was visible from the fact that the Vestal Virgins, a college of full-time priests in Rome, were devoted to her.
26 Vulcan (Vulcanus-i)
Vulcano was the god of fire, including fire of volcanoes and forge. He corresponds to Hephaestus, the Greek god of fire and volcanic phenomena. Vulcan is depicted with a blacksmith’s hammer. Vulcan belongs to the ancient stage of Roman religion: Varro, the ancient Roman scholar and writer. An annual festival named Vulcanalia was held on August 23 in his honor.