Magnetic levitation – the most fantastic term to refer to everyday reality.
There is a certain gravitational field on the Earth, and the human dream has always been to overcome it by any means. Initially, this means the hypothetical ability to mysteriously overcome gravity and move people or objects in the air without accessories.
Now, however, the term “magnetic levitation” is already quite scientific. In fact, we developed several innovative ideas, which are based on this phenomenon. And all of them, the long term promise excellent opportunities are there for versatile use. However, magnetic levitation is not just a captivating magic tricks as it has very specific achievements in physics, that is, it relates the magnetic fields and everything that is connected with them.
A Little Theory
Among people far from science, there is a perception that magnetic levitation is a magnet guided flight. In fact, this term is introduced to overcome the subject – gravity by using a magnetic field. One of its characteristics is the magnetic pressure, it is only used for “struggle” with the terrestrial attraction.
Simply when gravity pulls the object down, the magnetic pressure is directed so that it is repelled by it in the opposite direction.
The crux of applying the theory is that a static field is unstable and does not focus on a particular point, so that effectively resisting the gravitational force. Therefore, Magnetic levitation refers to the manipulation of magnetic fields to levitate an object above the other object. Let’s start with most interesting facts about magnetic levitation. Keep reading!
1. Maglev Is The Most Significant Discovery On Magnetic Levitation
Visionaries dreamed of a portable device just as the size of a backpack that would “levitate” a man in the necessary direction at a significant rate.
Science took a different path, a more practical and workable way – it was created by a moving train in a magnetic levitation.
2. Alfred Zeyn Filed First The Idea Of Composing Magnetic Levitation
For the first time in 1902, German engineer and inventor Alfred Zeyn filed (and even patented) the idea of composition of magnetic levitation using a linear motor. Thereafter, the development of electromagnetic suspension and trains equipped with them, appeared punctually till 1906.
3. Other Inventors Who Also Were Working In The Development Of Magnetic Levitation
Franklin Scott Smith offered another prototype between 1937 and 1941. A number of patents on the same subject was introduced by Hermann Kemper, and a little later the British Eric Leyzveyt created a prototype of operation of the engine in real size. In the 1960s, he also participated in the development of Hovercraft tracks, which would later become the most high-speed trains, but did not execute due to lack of funding in 1973 and the project was finally canceled.
4. First Maglev Train Is Proposed With A Mere Speed Of 75 Kmph
Only six years later, again in Germany, magnetic levitation train was built and got a license for the transport of passengers. The runway placed in Hamburg, had a length of less than one kilometer, but the idea was inspired by a society for the operated train and after the exhibition, it have to transport 50,000 people for three months. Its speed was not as great as just 75 km/h by modern standards.
This commercial maglev (so they called the train, a levitating object using a magnet) shuttle between the airport and the train station in Birmingham since 1984, and held the post for 11 years. The length was even smaller, i.e, only about 600 m.
5. Fastest Japanese Version Of Maglev
The hype about magnetic levitation train in Europe has decreased. But in the late 90’s we are actively interested in such high tech country as Japan. Its territory is already put some quite extensive trails, that leads to fly maglev using the phenomenon of magnetic levitation. They belong to the same country records and speed set by these trains. The last one showed the speed limit of more than 550 km/h.
6. Future Maglev With 1000 km/h
According to theorists’ calculations, attractive maglev capabilities are go up to beyond the level. They may be overclocking up to 1000 kilometers per hour in the near future. Once its magnetic levitation activates, it only inhibits air resistance. Therefore, its composition describes the maximum aerodynamic and greatly reduces its impact. In addition, due to the fact that they do not touch the rail, the wear of these trains are extremely slow, which is economically very beneficial.
Reduced effect of noise is one of other advantages of Maglev when it compares to the conventionla trains. In addition, the magnetic levitation train is able to overcome the steepest slopes, and eliminates the need to put the railway line skirting mountains and descents.
7. Application Of Magnetic Levitation In Energy
As you know, classic bearings wear out quickly – they are constantly experiencing high mechanical loads. In some areas, these parts’ replacement means not only the additional costs, but also a high risk to the people who serve the mechanism.
The magnetic bearings are able to operate with more durability, so that their application is very suitable for any extreme conditions. For example, in nuclear power, wind or technology industries, accompanied by a very low / high temperature.
8. Future Aircraft Based On Magnetic Levitation
The problem of how to implement magnetic levitation are accompanied with a reasonable question: when will it possible to build a maglev airplane. In fact, the anecdotal evidence tells that such “UFO” existed might work on the same principal. Take, for example, the “Vimana” – ancient Indian flying object or already closer to us in Hitler’s time secret weapon “diskolety” preserved exemplary drawings and even photos of existing models.
The question remains: how to put all these ideas into reality? But still there aren’t any viable prototypes in modern inventors or maybe it’s still very secret information?
9. Flying Cars & Magnetic Levitation
Those who often watch science fiction films are already dreaming of the appearance of flying cars. While this is not the case, one of the solutions may be the manufacture of cars that float and reach even greater speeds than wheeled models.
Inventor Elon Musk, owner of the space agency SpaceX and also of the Tesla company (of electric cars) has a prototype based on the same technology of trains with magnetic levitation. However, this project called Hyperloop Pod is designed for small cars and few passengers. Its speed would reach more than 1200 km/h which would be enough to beat the speed of sound.
To assist in the project, Musk created a competition that began in 2016 with the selection of prototypes based on its creation and that had its first models in action in the beginning of 2017. The Hyperloop Pod Competition had the participation of 3 teams of universities of different countries. This first edition focused on efficiency as well as car safety, putting extreme speed aside.
The major problem of this project would be the construction of roads for small cars. But this would be an extremely fast way to travel by land.
Magnetic levitation is a study that has yet to take many steps to strive for perfection. But heavy investment and recent projects show that the world is heading in the right direction for the practical use of this method. This technology does not cause the emission of pollutants. It is extremely faster than cars that cause friction and also have the advantage of being lighter. Reasonably cheap and efficient!!
10. Superconductive Levitation
This type of levitation began to be researched only from the twentieth century, when new materials and superconducting tablets were created that work at high temperatures. The pellets become superconducting precisely because they are exposed to high temperatures, working differently from ordinary superconductors. Unlike ordinary superconductors, Superconducting pellets which need to be cooled with liquid helium, need only liquid nitrogen to be cooled, resulting in less expense.
Some companies, especially transportation companies use the concepts of magnetic levitation for their vehicles. One example is Transrapid International SA, which, on its train, uses the electromagnetic levitation system. In this case, the attractive force is controlled electronically in the vehicle. The main advantage of using this system is that there is no pollution of the environment, and there is also no noise pollution since the train does not come into contact with the rails. However, it is not a stable system and problems can occur if there are strong winds or, in the event of loss of energy in the electromagnets, causing them to lose the ability to levitate.
11. Optical Levitation May Also Be Possible Just Like Magnetic Version
The possibility of the particles under the influence of light to perform the motion was yet to anticipate the Kepler theory. Lebedev proved a light pressure. The movement of the particles towards the light source (optical levitation) called photopheresis is positive, and in the opposite – negative direction.
Other Levitation Methods
Levitation wind, unlike the optical is widely applicable in the current day technologies. Incidentally, the “mattress” is one of its varieties. The simplest airbag can be obtained very easily. When a support substrate and a plurality of holes drilled through them, the compressed air is blown. In this case, the air sustaining force balances the individual’s weight, and it hangs in the air.
12. Types Of Magnetic Levitation
All kinds of materials found in the world have a type of property known as diamagnetism. Since all matter is constituted by atoms that contain electrons around their nucleus, when they come in contact with the magnetic field, the movements of the electrons around the nucleus are altered in an opposite way. This happens because of the influence generated by the magnetic field where each atom ends up functioning as a magnet with the opposite direction.
We know that when we approach equal poles of magnets, they tend to move away. What happens in a magnetic levitation is that the fields are contrary, the force of repulsion usually has more weight than the object and, with this, it ends up levitating. The magnetic field in which the object is exposed must be greater for the object to avoid.
Last known by science at this point on the path – levitation using acoustic waves. Let us know some known two main kinds of magnetic levitation.
Levitation By Magnetic Repulsion
In this case, superconducting coils are used that have the quality of having little electrical resistance.These coils create their own magnetic field, however, they generate an electric current when they come in contact with a conductor. This happens because the magnetic field generated by the coils moves in its own surroundings.
The current generated by the contact between the conductor and the coil eventually generates another magnetic field contrary to the field created by the coil. The relationship between the two fields creates a force that is capable of erecting the object. The magnetic force only produced because the conductor is wrapped in an electric current. This type of levitation is also known as electrodynamic levitation.
Levitation By Magnetic Attraction
In this type of levitation, it is possible to erect a ferromagnetic body by the force of attraction that an electromagnet has. When one thinks of a matter in a state of levitation, it is understood that two forces act upon it. The first is the weight force and the second is the magnetic force, the junction of the two forms the attraction that matter has for the electromagnet. It turns out that this type of attraction is not very stable and any change in current or proportion can cause a fall of the matter to be levitated. Levitation by magnetic attraction depends very much on how the current of the electromagnet works and is also known as electromagnetic levitation.