The arena of science and fiction has made the concept of Wormhole a famous affair. In fact the sci-fi movies like Stargate, Star Trek, and Interstellar have had a big role and they need to be thanked for portraying beyond the time imagination on screen. Being hypothesized in 1916 by Austrian scientist Ludwig Flamm, it is even contemplated by the theoretical physics experts. It was based on an idea of cosmology and then processed in to a hypothesis for science. This concept of Wormhole is also known as the Einstein-Rosen Bridge.
No doubt, the theory is too complex. But surprisingly, the effect (science fiction) is simple.
Wormholes arise as a solution to the queries and equations of Albert Einstein’s and his General Theory of Relativity. The term was coined by an American physicist named John Wheeler.
Getting amazed by the superlative performance and depictions in movies is itself blissful, but what if the theory comes with a package of much more amazing facts and figures? That is something a physics and astronomy geek would never want to miss out.
Here it is- presenting to you an interesting array of mind boggling facts about Einstein Rosen Bridge.
1 What is the Einstein-Rosen Bridge?
As much as is known, the Einstein-Rosen Bridge is geometrical characteristic prevalent in a black hole. It induces another set of dimensions to the universe in the other side of the black hole. This way a passage is formed through the bridge and hence a new mathematical possibility exists. This is not a new world phenomenon but rather present in all the black holes. This is the Einstein-Rosen Bridge.
2 Wormhole can connect two distinct points in spacetime
A wormhole or Einstein-Rosen bridge is considered as a solution of the Einstein field equation. It links distinct points in spacetime. The connections comply with the General Theory of Relativity but have a hypothetical existence. It can connect extremely long as well as extremely short distances, or different universes and points in time.
3 Three fundamental properties Of Einstein-Rosen Bridge
The three characteristic properties of a black hole are- mass, spin and charge. The knowledge of all the three properties signifies the completion of black hole.
4 Assumptions regarding the Wormhole concept
Physicists assume the wormhole to be large and stable. It is also considered impossible by many mathematicians and physicists. The following features relate to wormhole:
– It is assumed that one end of the wormhole lies on the planet Earth.
– Second assumption is regarding the location of the other end of the wormhole. It is believed that the other is located inside a spaceship which is currently at rest on Earth.
– Travelling or walking through the wormhole or communication is essentially instantaneous.
5 Anatomy of a Wormhole
In a wormhole, the opening is called the mouth. Each mouth is connected by the wormhole throat.
The throat expands into a belly.
6 Classification of Wormhole
Wormholes have been classified into the following part-
– Permanent Wormhole- one that sticks around for a while,
– Transient Wormhole– one that doesn’t stick for a while
– Macroscopic Wormhole- one that is large and easy to be detected
– Stable wormhole- a permanent wormhole that does not disintegrates if disturbed is
– Static Wormholes- one that does not change over time
– Dynamic wormholes- one that changes over time
– Traversable wormhole- one that is stable and can travel through unharmed
– Schwarzschild Wormholes– only traversable in one direction, and is an example of an Einstein-Rosen bridge
7 Imagining a wormhole
A wormhole is imagined as a two-dimensional sheet. At home, one can create it by poking two holes and curving the sheet. Two tunnels are formed. Lastly stitch all the ends of the funnel together. You have the wormhole in hand. The visualization of a wormhole would come better if we consider a piece of paper with two pencil marks on it. The points will represent two points in space-time. The line in between them marks the distance from one point to the other in normal space-time. Now bend and fold the paper for almost double and then put the pencil to pass through the paper. As a result, a shorter link way of two points can be found.
8 The Einstein-Rosen Bridge Equation
The equation is simple-
ER = EPR
The alphabets E and R do not represent any complex scientific or astronomical calculations. They represent the name of great theoretical physicists; E refers to Albert Einstein, and R refers to Nathan Rosen, who published a study describing such wormholes in 1935. It is because of these two eminent personalities that the wormhole got this other technical name- The Einstein-Rosen Bridge.
The other side of the equation is not much different. There remains the P, which refers to the physicist Boris Podolsky, with whom the other two scientists wrote another study describing quantum entanglement.
9 Minnesother Bureau & Quantum Instrumentation
Wormholes are shortcuts in space and time and if anyone theoretically falls into one of them, he/she will not only emerge elsewhere in space, but also at another time.
How two different particles interact in a way that divides the same existence is described by Quantum entanglement. It is described as a twin that senses what is wrong with the other. That is, everything that happens to one particle, theoretically, could happen to the other, even if they are light years away.
An example to cite- In a new study, Leonard Susskind (an American physicist) proposed a hypothetical scenario in which Alice and Bob pick up a member from the couple of entangled particles in the vacuum and travel to opposite directions in the universe (this is just a mental exercise). When they arrived at their destinations, the two crushed their entangled particles with great strength. According to Susskind, the result would be two different black holes linked by a giant wormhole, if ER=EPR is true. This would be the link between the two different fields of physics, which could serve as the basis for the Theory of Everything with which Einstein always dreamed.
It’s too early to know if this is all true. The study still needs to undergo a formal review, although it is already open to anyone who wants to study it.
Susskind wrote “For me, it seems obvious that ER = EPR is true, it would affect our foundations and interpretations of quantum mechanics.” Quantum mechanics and gravity may be more intertwined than we imagine.”
10 Implications in the Einstein-Rosen Bridge
If the Einstein-Rosen model succeeds in describing gigantic cosmic structures, then the model proposed by this research could be used more realistically to trigger to new technological implications. As observed, it would allow to transmit electrical signals for a instance in an extremely precise atomic level. The system is stable but with pentavalent or heptavalent atoms, i.e. with 5 or 7 instead of the 6 bonds of pure graphene. One more interesting thing that happens, there is an electric current that can be generated. The wormhole is not only a feasible and stable structure but also capable of passing information.
A cosmic wormhole would require an amount of energy to generate the same cosmic shortcut: the only source could possibly be a black hole, which would have the “Stargate” function for the wormhole, but who would want to get so close to a black hole that you can cross?
11 The Wormhole troubles
Studies about wormhole proving helpful in astronomical experiments have been the story of the past. John Wheeler, a theoretical physicist, once commented about the wormholes having the nature of appearing and disappearing. This was addressed by the fundamentals of his study of the quantum foam hypothesis. (The idea of virtual particles being quite weird and popping in and out of existence at all times). Wheeler had unfortunately speculated the wormholes to be super small. Putting it in another way, the wormhole would be too small to detect.
Eric Davis, a senior research physicist at the Institute for Advanced Studies at Austin once said-
“The rule of ordinary matter in the universe is that it has positive energy density and positive pressure.”
“Exotic matter is a little bit different. It’s matter that has negative energy density and/or negative pressure. You can have a clump of matter with negative energy and positive pressure or vice versa.”
Exotic matter also possesses some negative properties which might push the sides of a wormhole outward. With the protruded side, the wormhole tends to become large and stable enough for a person or a spaceship to fit and pass through it.
Kip Thorne was a PhD student of Wheeler. He collaborated with him on relativity textbook. They worked together to explore the potential of interstellar shortcuts. Carl Sagan once questioned Thorne and this is what motivated the working on the novel Contact. It was about the first encounter between humans and extraterrestrials. Sagan was in need of a powerful plot and a script involving a trans-galactic journey.
Thorne pondered a lot about how to fulfill Sagan’s dream. Thorne assigned his student Michael Morris to the problem. To everyone’s amazement, Morris and Thorne discovered a wormhole solution with many favorable properties. It also allowed passage between two different parts of space.
12 Creation and Discovery of Wormholes
Various researchers around the world individually created a magnetic wormhole for the first time ever. It served as a connecting path between two regions of space and helped the magnetic field travel invisibly.
The actual wormholes don’t function like the old or modern, yet popular science fiction shows. A bunch of scientists and physicists succeeded in creating a tunnel that would allow magnetic field to disappear at one point, and reappear at another.
Scientists have been successful in giving an impulse to the process of wormholes but there is still a long way to go. The dream of creating a gravitational wormhole is a long dream for now. It would require huge amounts of gravitational energy and that is something that we are clueless about.
A team from the Autonomous University of Barcelona had an edge in generation and control of electromagnetic energy. They decided to build a magnetic wormhole in the lab. Finally they managed to create tunnels that direct the magnetic fields to different points. It is quite obvious that these were not true wormholes.
13 Properties of Wormhole
– A wormhole isn’t really invisible to the human eye.
– It is a sphere made up of an outer ferromagnetic surface, an inner superconducting layer and then a ferromagnetic sheet rolled into a cylinder internally.
– It is magnetically invisible from the outside.
14 Applications of Wormholes
– Wormhole has the capacity to take people across space.
– It also has the ability to change the topology of space.
– It also has practical applications in areas like creation of MRI machines
15 History’s greatest astronomical discovery
An instantaneous transfer of matter from our solar system at a point ten light years away is facilitated by the wormhole. If there is something that can be termed as the greatest discovery in the history of astronomy, it is the first wormhole (wormhole). NASA had an active part in dispersing the news to the international scientific community and to the whole world.
The news was given by a technician of Italian origin operating in a NASA center. The technician, who held a significant role in the American space program, gave a preview of the news and details. The confirmation took place as involuntary indiscretion leaked by a source close to the White House. In fact, President Obama attended the event; no word yet on whether in person or by video conference.
On January 26, the team of VLA recorded a unique electromagnetic radiation in the microwave band: a constant amplitude signal consisting of packets encoded in binary code; the transmission, duration of 15 minutes, was repeated at 4-hour intervals over a period of 24 hours. The radiation seemed to come from Eridani, a star belonging to the constellation located just over 10 light years from Earth. Eridani is the third star for proximity to the earth after Proxima Centauri and Sirius.
It was considered an extraterrestrial effort unlikely to a natural phenomenon. American scientists agree that the issue was not generated by a terrestrial source. NASA was immediately informed and national security protocols dictate that the American Space Agencies must informed of any event listed under the USC (unknown space communication) and mentioned immediately on alert carrying out all the checks and routine analyzes. Starting from 1990, this event provides a comparison with all the transmissions sent or receive from Earth into space and classified into a specific database.
The NASA discovered a radio message with the characteristics similar to the detection of VLA radio telescope. The same was programmed in the transmitter system of a satellite launched in 2003 as part of the SETI program (Search for Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence) with the sole exception of a phase inversion.
In fact, the satellite launched in 2003 was programmed to emit the stored transmission at intervals of 480 hours, precisely according to a sequence repeated 15 minutes every 4 hours for the duration of 24 hours and its life had been programmed until 2008. On 25 July 2005, the satellite had suddenly stopped working and had been reported missing at a distance of about 44 million kilometers from Earth.
It is supposed that the Wormhole was immediately activated. NASA-VLA collaboration in search of possible anomalies, aimed at the analysis of the portion of space around the last known position of the satellite.
Research led to the recognition of a “singularity”, discovered only in 2015 and classified as PBH – possible black hole. Its gravitational effect was estimated at a mass equal to 3 x 10-8 solar masses, placed in an elliptical heliocentric orbit in a corridor more or less halfway between Mars and our planet, the average distance of 185 million kilometers from the sun.
The satellite route included a passage exactly in the vicinity of the singularity that at the time of the launch, though it was not yet known. The analysis of the recording of the satellite telemetry data showed a sudden and indecipherable course change immediately before its collapse. The causes for such an event could be:
– an impact with fragments of comets or asteroids;
– or the influence of a strong gravitational field (such as that generated by a black hole). The probe, however, had yet given news of it, so it could not be swallowed up by a black hole.
To support the hypothesis, there was also the detection of phase inversion undergone by the radio signal that explains the effect caused by a gravitational distortion, in accordance with the Theory of General Relativity. The reconstruction could also explain the reception of the signal emitted by a device that it should have been no longer active. In fact, the transmission received from the VLA (the light from the nearby star dell’Eridano) was came from the satellite 10 years ago, namely in 2006.
It is confirmed that the satellite had actually still remained in operation after passing the passage through the anomaly.
On February 15, the transmission detected along with the encoding that lasted 24 consecutive hours. The confirmation that came just after 480 hours from the first reception. After another 480 hours, on 6th March, another identical transmission was detected by VLA; confirmation had now become a certainty!
If the detections together have represented evidence of the existence of the wormhole, besides the fact that the probe had not undergone gravitational deformations. The second and the third of them had also provided the certainty that the crossing of anomaly had resulted in deviations on the timeline.
The detail is not insignificant since a wormhole could be the connecting channel between different temporal dimensions or even between different universes. The wormhole discovery is probably destined to change the current space exploration programs.